Using PostgreSQL in Grafana

Grafana ships with a built-in PostgreSQL data source plugin that allows you to query and visualize data from a PostgreSQL compatible database.

Adding the data source

  1. Open the side menu by clicking the Grafana icon in the top header.
  2. In the side menu under the Dashboards link you should find a link named Data Sources.
  3. Click the + Add data source button in the top header.
  4. Select PostgreSQL from the Type dropdown.

Data source options

NameDescription
NameThe data source name. This is how you refer to the data source in panels & queries.
DefaultDefault data source means that it will be pre-selected for new panels.
HostThe IP address/hostname and optional port of your PostgreSQL instance.
DatabaseName of your PostgreSQL database.
UserDatabase user’s login/username
PasswordDatabase user’s password
SSL ModeThis option determines whether or with what priority a secure SSL TCP/IP connection will be negotiated with the server.
TimescaleDBWith this option enabled Grafana will use TimescaleDB features, e.g. use time_bucket for grouping by time (only available in Grafana 5.3+).

Database User Permissions (Important!)

The database user you specify when you add the data source should only be granted SELECT permissions on the specified database & tables you want to query. Grafana does not validate that the query is safe. The query could include any SQL statement. For example, statements like DELETE FROM user; and DROP TABLE user; would be executed. To protect against this we Highly recommmend you create a specific postgresql user with restricted permissions.

Example:

 CREATE USER grafanareader WITH PASSWORD 'password';
 GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA schema TO grafanareader;
 GRANT SELECT ON schema.table TO grafanareader;

Make sure the user does not get any unwanted privileges from the public role.

Macros

To simplify syntax and to allow for dynamic parts, like date range filters, the query can contain macros.

Macro exampleDescription
$__time(dateColumn)Will be replaced by an expression to rename the column to time. For example, dateColumn as time
$__timeSec(dateColumn)Will be replaced by an expression to rename the column to time and converting the value to unix timestamp. For example, extract(epoch from dateColumn) as time
$__timeFilter(dateColumn)Will be replaced by a time range filter using the specified column name. For example, dateColumn BETWEEN ‘2017-04-21T05:01:17Z’ AND ‘2017-04-21T05:06:17Z’
$__timeFrom()Will be replaced by the start of the currently active time selection. For example, ‘2017-04-21T05:01:17Z’
$__timeTo()Will be replaced by the end of the currently active time selection. For example, ‘2017-04-21T05:06:17Z’
$__timeGroup(dateColumn,‘5m’)Will be replaced by an expression usable in GROUP BY clause. For example, *(extract(epoch from dateColumn)/300)::bigint300
$__timeGroup(dateColumn,‘5m’, 0)Same as above but with a fill parameter so missing points in that series will be added by grafana and 0 will be used as value.
$__timeGroup(dateColumn,‘5m’, NULL)Same as above but NULL will be used as value for missing points.
$__timeGroup(dateColumn,‘5m’, previous)Same as above but the previous value in that series will be used as fill value if no value has been seen yet NULL will be used (only available in Grafana 5.3+).
$__timeGroupAlias(dateColumn,‘5m’)Will be replaced identical to $__timeGroup but with an added column alias (only available in Grafana 5.3+).
$__unixEpochFilter(dateColumn)Will be replaced by a time range filter using the specified column name with times represented as unix timestamp. For example, dateColumn >= 1494410783 AND dateColumn <= 1494497183
$__unixEpochFrom()Will be replaced by the start of the currently active time selection as unix timestamp. For example, 1494410783
$__unixEpochTo()Will be replaced by the end of the currently active time selection as unix timestamp. For example, 1494497183

We plan to add many more macros. If you have suggestions for what macros you would like to see, please open an issue in our GitHub repo.

The query editor has a link named Generated SQL that shows up after a query as been executed, while in panel edit mode. Click on it and it will expand and show the raw interpolated SQL string that was executed.

Table queries

If the Format as query option is set to Table then you can basically do any type of SQL query. The table panel will automatically show the results of whatever columns & rows your query returns.

Query editor with example query:

The query:

SELECT
  title as "Title",
  "user".login as "Created By",
  dashboard.created as "Created On"
FROM dashboard
INNER JOIN "user" on "user".id = dashboard.created_by
WHERE $__timeFilter(dashboard.created)

You can control the name of the Table panel columns by using regular as SQL column selection syntax.

The resulting table panel:

postgres table

Time series queries

If you set Format as to Time series, for use in Graph panel for example, then the query must return a column named time that returns either a sql datetime or any numeric datatype representing unix epoch. Any column except time and metric is treated as a value column. You may return a column named metric that is used as metric name for the value column. If you return multiple value columns and a column named metric then this column is used as prefix for the series name (only available in Grafana 5.3+).

Example with metric column:

SELECT
  $__timeGroup("time_date_time",'5m'),
  min("value_double"),
  'min' as metric
FROM test_data
WHERE $__timeFilter("time_date_time")
GROUP BY time
ORDER BY time

Example using the fill parameter in the $__timeGroup macro to convert null values to be zero instead:

SELECT
  $__timeGroup("createdAt",'5m',0),
  sum(value) as value,
  measurement
FROM test_data
WHERE
  $__timeFilter("createdAt")
GROUP BY time, measurement
ORDER BY time

Example with multiple columns:

SELECT
  $__timeGroup("time_date_time",'5m'),
  min("value_double") as "min_value",
  max("value_double") as "max_value"
FROM test_data
WHERE $__timeFilter("time_date_time")
GROUP BY time
ORDER BY time

Templating

Instead of hard-coding things like server, application and sensor name in you metric queries you can use variables in their place. Variables are shown as dropdown select boxes at the top of the dashboard. These dropdowns makes it easy to change the data being displayed in your dashboard.

Checkout the Templating documentation for an introduction to the templating feature and the different types of template variables.

Query Variable

If you add a template variable of the type Query, you can write a PostgreSQL query that can return things like measurement names, key names or key values that are shown as a dropdown select box.

For example, you can have a variable that contains all values for the hostname column in a table if you specify a query like this in the templating variable Query setting.

SELECT hostname FROM host

A query can return multiple columns and Grafana will automatically create a list from them. For example, the query below will return a list with values from hostname and hostname2.

SELECT host.hostname, other_host.hostname2 FROM host JOIN other_host ON host.city = other_host.city

To use time range dependent macros like $__timeFilter(column) in your query the refresh mode of the template variable needs to be set to On Time Range Change.

SELECT event_name FROM event_log WHERE $__timeFilter(time_column)

Another option is a query that can create a key/value variable. The query should return two columns that are named __text and __value. The __text column value should be unique (if it is not unique then the first value is used). The options in the dropdown will have a text and value that allows you to have a friendly name as text and an id as the value. An example query with hostname as the text and id as the value:

SELECT hostname AS __text, id AS __value FROM host

You can also create nested variables. For example if you had another variable named region. Then you could have the hosts variable only show hosts from the current selected region with a query like this (if region is a multi-value variable then use the IN comparison operator rather than = to match against multiple values):

SELECT hostname FROM host  WHERE region IN($region)

Using Variables in Queries

From Grafana 4.3.0 to 4.6.0, template variables are always quoted automatically so if it is a string value do not wrap them in quotes in where clauses.

From Grafana 4.7.0, template variable values are only quoted when the template variable is a multi-value.

If the variable is a multi-value variable then use the IN comparison operator rather than = to match against multiple values.

There are two syntaxes:

$<varname> Example with a template variable named hostname:

SELECT
  atimestamp as time,
  aint as value
FROM table
WHERE $__timeFilter(atimestamp) and hostname in($hostname)
ORDER BY atimestamp ASC

[[varname]] Example with a template variable named hostname:

SELECT
  atimestamp as time,
  aint as value
FROM table
WHERE $__timeFilter(atimestamp) and hostname in([[hostname]])
ORDER BY atimestamp ASC

Disabling Quoting for Multi-value Variables

Grafana automatically creates a quoted, comma-separated string for multi-value variables. For example: if server01 and server02 are selected then it will be formatted as: 'server01', 'server02'. Do disable quoting, use the csv formatting option for variables:

${servers:csv}

Read more about variable formatting options in the Variables documentation.

Annotations

Annotations allow you to overlay rich event information on top of graphs. You add annotation queries via the Dashboard menu / Annotations view.

Example query using time column with epoch values:

SELECT
  epoch_time as time,
  metric1 as text,
  concat_ws(', ', metric1::text, metric2::text) as tags
FROM
  public.test_data
WHERE
  $__unixEpochFilter(epoch_time)

Example query using time column of native sql date/time data type:

SELECT
  native_date_time as time,
  metric1 as text,
  concat_ws(', ', metric1::text, metric2::text) as tags
FROM
  public.test_data
WHERE
  $__timeFilter(native_date_time)
NameDescription
timeThe name of the date/time field. Could be a column with a native sql date/time data type or epoch value.
textEvent description field.
tagsOptional field name to use for event tags as a comma separated string.

Alerting

Time series queries should work in alerting conditions. Table formatted queries is not yet supported in alert rule conditions.

Configure the Datasource with Provisioning

It’s now possible to configure datasources using config files with Grafana’s provisioning system. You can read more about how it works and all the settings you can set for datasources on the provisioning docs page

Here are some provisioning examples for this datasource.

apiVersion: 1

datasources:
  - name: Postgres
    type: postgres
    url: localhost:5432
    database: grafana
    user: grafana
    secureJsonData:
      password: "Password!"
    jsonData:
      sslmode: "disable" # disable/require/verify-ca/verify-full
      timescaledb: false